Friday, February 7, 2020

Financial Accounting Concepts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 6

Financial Accounting Concepts - Essay Example The advantages is that the more concerned managers are involved, the better the chances are of the budget being very much realistic in approach. These budgets are generally made at all levels but individually, rather than collectively. For instance, a salesman keeps a self imposed budget of, e.g. 5 units to be sold in a day.†¢Ã‚  Base Year Budget: It is the type of budgeting in which the previous year or any year for that matter is considered a standard, against which the expected (/wanted) performance is added to have a forecasted budget for the coming term. For example, considering 2006 as a base year, with all revenues and expenses expected to rise by 10%; the said percentage is multiplied across the board to attain the coming year budget or forecast.†¢Ã‚  Zero Based Budget: It is a derived form of the base year budget in which no base year is considered and the concerned manager is expected to justify each and every expense that he/she has stated in the forecast/budget. These are difficult to make, require extensive efforts and data gathering, since there is no base, the budget has to be prepared fro scratch.The users of budgets use these for different purposes; e.g. accountants use the information to check with variance for future better forecast, the heads check the contribution and performance of individual employees, the management checks the department working and profitability, while the owners view the over all big picture to visualize individual contributions and achievements.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Career Development Plan Part Iv - Compensation Essay Example for Free

Career Development Plan Part Iv Compensation Essay Now that we have structured our new team, identified their roles, identified ways to manage their performance and created an appraisal system we are now proposing a new compensation plan. This part will outline the plan, describe how it will help motivate employee performance, describe our total rewards program and outline how this program will benefit the individual and InterClean. Account Executive Financial Compensation Plan Compensation structures can be broken down into two distinct categories, financial and non-financial (Cascio, 2006). This section overviews the financial compensation plan for account executives, which includes pay and benefits. Account executive pay will be primarily commission based. Each account executive will receive a base salary at minimum wage, with the rest of their salary coming from commission. We feel that a generous commission structure will motivate performance because pay will have a direct correlation with sales volume. We structured our proposed commission plan to reflect InterClean new strategic direction (University of Phoenix, 2007), and how employees are rated in their quarterly appraisal. This means a focus on retention, up-selling and volume. Account executives will receive 8% commission on sales for the first six-months of revenue. 10% commission on sales after six-months of continuous revenue. 13% commission on sales after one-year of continuous revenue. 13% commission on up-sells and account executives that meet their quarterly sales volume will also receive a bonus equaling 3% of total revenue earned. New Business Account Executive, The New Business Account Executive has different goals, and therefore a different pay scale will apply. He or she will receive a base salary of $30,000 per year, plus a 3% quarterly commission on revenues earned from the accounts he or she acquired. We feel that this structure will adequately reflect the difference between new account acquisition and account retention. Cumulatively, the maximum amount of commission paid on revenues to account executives would be 19%. In related to the benefits Account Executives will receive the standard benefits due to all InterClean employees, including; †¢ Health Insurance with employee share of cost †¢ 401k match 14 days paid vacation †¢ 6 days sick time †¢ Health, Financial, Stress and Motivational Counseling through our employee wellness program. Managerial Financial Compensation Plan The managerial financial compensation plan will focus on overall team performance. We feel that creating a plan that rewards managers for team performance helps ensure management’s focus on creating a strong team that meets financial objec tives. Managers will receive a base salary dependent on their pay grade, ranging from $50,000 annual for the solution expert and $65,000 annually for the sales manager. The rest of their salary will be based on team performance as 3% commission on total revenues per quarter of all account executives that have met his or her goal, and 2% on total revenues per quarter if all account executives meet their goals. We feel that paying based on meeting objectives, and sharing in total revenues accomplishes two important things such as rewards managers who ensure account executives meet their goals by providing the tools and support they need. And it encourages over-achieving by not setting a limit on revenue sharing. In terms of the benefits, managerial employees share in the aforementioned benefits, and are given one additional week of paid vacation (five days) per year. As mentioned, compensation does not only include financial compensation; there are certain non-financial rewards that motivate employee performance, increase loyalty and decrease turnover. The following non-financial rewards were chosen based on a survey conducted in the United Kingdom (Employee Benefits, 2006) as additional â€Å"perks† for employees. Sales Employees, All sales employees are eligible the following reward package flexible working arrangements. Employees can work at home when appropriate on dates arranged between them and their manager. Flexible work time is the top-rated non-financial reward in the UK survey (Employee Benefits, 2006) and offering such an arrangement can increase productivity by diminishing stress caused by work-life conflicts. And corporate gym membership also ranked high on the survey, and using our corporate pull to offer a free membership not only encourages wellness, but exercise has countless benefits such as stress relief, increased creativity, and energy. Also, we will include employee discount at restaurants. Using the promise of higher volume by internally promoting local restaurants to our employees, HR has arranged for employee discounts at local restaurants. This benefit decreases the costs of lunch for our employees and gives them another reason to value InterClean. Managerial Rewards, The following rewards are available to managers in addition to the preceding rewards available to all employees such as use of company vehicle: Surprisingly, the UK survey listed â€Å"sports car as company vehicle† as the number one â€Å"benefit they don’t receive but wish they had† (Employee Benefits, 2006, para4. . Company gas card, not only should our sales manager ride in prestige, but we understand that the majority of driving they do benefits our company, so they also have use of our company gas card. The compensation and rewards system outlined in this plan are geared to motivate performance by tying pay directly to the revenue gained for InterClean. Our new strategy of fo cusing on solution-based selling (University of Phoenix, 2007) means we must grow retention, up selling, and total volume. This plan rewards all three by reducing the base pay of account executives, increasing commission and tiering commission based on retention and up selling. We reward achievers and not low-performers. Tying managerial pay directly to the performance of the team rewards good managers (Vigoda-Gadot Angert, 2007. ) Finally, offering a substantial but not overly high base pay takes into account fluctuating economic and environmental constraints. Offering bonuses quarterly rather than annual avoids penalizing employees for one bad quarter, which can happen to even the best sales person. Finally, our reward system is built to make InterClean a great place to work, that values the employees well-being and offers perks as part of the job. Offering this reward system can help InterClean retain the best possible account executives and managers (Cascio, 2006). Because we offer competitive pay and creative rewards that ease the work-life conundrum, and add a certain level of prestige to those who work for InterClean.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Essay on Blanche DuBois in Tennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desi

The Destruction of Blanche in A Streetcar Named Desire  Ã‚     Ã‚   A Streetcar Named Desire is an intricate web of complex themes and conflicted characters. Set in the pivotal years immediately following World War II, Tennessee Williams infuses Blanche and Stanley with the symbols of opposing class and differing attitudes towards sex and love, then steps back as the power struggle between them ensues. Yet there are no clear cut lines of good vs. evil, no character is neither completely good nor bad, because the main characters, (especially Blanche), are so torn by conflicting and contradictory desires and needs. As such, the play has no clear victor, everyone loses something, and this fact is what gives the play its tragic cast. In a larger sense, Blanche and Stanley, individual characters as well as symbols for opposing classes, historical periods, and ways of life, struggle and find a new balance of power, not because of ideological rights and wrongs, but as a matter of historical inevitability. Interestingly, Williams finalizes the resol ution of this struggle on the most base level possible. In Scene Ten, Stanley subdues Blanche, and all that she stands for, in the same way men have been subduing women for centuries. Yet, though shocking, this is not out of keeping with the themes of the play for, in all matters of power, force is its ultimate manifestation. And Blanche is not completely unwilling, she has her own desires that draw her to Stanley, like a moth to the light, a light she avoids, even hates, yet yearns for. A first reader of Scene Ten of the play might conclude that sex between Stanley and Blanche seems out of place. It might not ring true given the preceding circumstances. There is not much overt sexual tensi... mechanism, and desire only a function of reproduction. Yet, it is not so. Individual human destiny is much stronger than the force of history if only individuals grapple with who they are and the forces pressuring them, and have the courage to meet the mass wave head on. Perhaps no one in this play does so, but the desire is there and we can learn from their failure. Works Cited Bloom, Herald (ed.).   Tennessee Williams.   New York: Chelsea House, 1987. Donahue, Francis.   The Dramatic World of Tennessee Williams.   New York: Frederic Ungar Publishing Co., 1964. Hirsch, Foster.   A Portrait of the Artist-The Plays of Tennessee Williams.   London: Kennikat Press, 1979. Londre, F.H.   Tennessee Williams.   New York: Frederic Ungar Publishing Co., 1979. Williams, Tennessee.   A Streetcar Named Desire.   Stuttgart: Phillip Reclam, 1988.         

Monday, January 13, 2020

Recruitment Resources

In this report I will compare the purposes of all different recruitment resources documents used in the selection and recruitment process for a given organisation Job Specification What the job involves This allows the candidate to fully understand what the job role involves before apply for the job. It allows candidates to figure out if they’re suitable for the requirements which the organisation is looking for, this can normally save time if the candidate believes the job role is not suitable for them.Job title This shows the candidate what title they will be under if they are successful with the recruitment selection process. Titles are normally the same title, privileges and area of business throughout all organisations; this can give the candidate an idea of where the role is based within the organisation. Department This is an important bit of information that is on the job description, this shows the candidate what type of area the role is based within in the business.C andidates normally have a preferred area of business which they want to enter within, candidates usually apply for specific departments when searching for vacancies, it allows candidates not to waste time for applying for roles in which departments they wish not to enter. Responsible To This explains to the candidates whom they will be responsible for, who will be their first point of contact if a problem occurs. It allows the candidate to understand where in the hierarchy they will be based within the organisation. Scope of the postThis is what is expected from the candidate if they receive the job offer and accept the offer. It explains the most important aspects of the role for the candidate to understand if they feel up to the requirements. Education and qualifications Employers use this heading to explain to the candidates which qualifications they would prefer the candidate to have. The qualifications normally relate to the nature of the role which can impact the motivation of the candidate if they had received the role. Name of complier and approverThis states who created the application for the candidate and who will be checking the application after it has been submitted to the organisation. Date of issue This can be useful for candidates to view when the vacancy role to see when the organisation had published the vacancy. It can show if the vacancy has been online for period of time, or is a brand new role being published. Person Specification Job Title and Reference Number and Management Responsibilities This information in the person specification is an important need to know information for the candidate to understand what they are applying for.Reference numbers are important to keep track of what job role you’re applying for since every role will have a different reference number, so you can always find your way back to the role. When talking to the organisation, they normally ask for the reference number to find the vacancy information fo r interviews etc. It’s also important to let the candidate understand what responsibilities they will adhere too, such as running a team, budget etc. Attainments and Qualifications This is the information which allows the candidate to understand if they are suitable for the role with the requirements that are set by the organisation.This is normally required for a known knowledgeable job which requires the candidate to fully understand the area of work. Organisations normally set a minimum level of qualifications, such as minimum C in Maths GCSE. General Intelligence This is placed within the person specification to notify what skills and knowledge the organisation would rather the candidate have, such as communication and people skills. The skills noted in the person specification usually relate to the nature of the job role. TemperamentThis is explained to the candidate in which type of temperament they would prefer from a candidate in the job role. These can normally inclu de friendly, cool under pressure and patient. Customer Assistants need to ensure that their temperament is suitable for dealing with angry and needy customers. Location of Role This tells the candidate where the role is located within the organisations hierarchy. This is important for the candidate as they would want to understand if they are higher than another department, and if they are responsible for any other staff members.Hobbies and Interests Organisations normally state what type of person they would prefer to fill their job role, this normally allows candidates to understand if they are suitable or not before progressing through the recruitment process. Previous Experience Organisations ask this to ensure the candidate has previous experience in a possible related role. Some organisations normally require previous experience so full training is not required, however most organisations offer training to ensure that the candidate is fully aware of the companies procedures et c. Letter of ApplicationThe letter of application is paragraphs putting together the job description and the person specification to make out the best of the candidate in a simple sentence which really sells the candidate. The letter of application needs to ensure that it includes all the relevant information, skills and knowledge required for the specific job role. It should also include positive skills which can then sell the candidate and then the organisation can try match their vacancy requirements to the letter of application. If they fit well together, the recruitment selection process will begin the candidate.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Black Death And Its Effects On European Culture

Europe encountered many different devastations during the thirteenth century, the most alarming to occur was the Black Death. The Black Death was a widespread epidemic of the Bubonic Plague that passed from Asia and through Europe in the mid thirteenth century. Europe began to run low on food due to the colder winters and dry summers creating low harvest resulting in a poor economic situation. The first signs of the plague were seen in Europe around the fall of 1347 from bacteria infested rats traveling among the trade routes (Theilmann and Cate 372). In England, the population fell from approximately 4.8 to 2.6 million between 1348 and 1351 (DeWitte and Slavin 37). The Black Death had a large influence on European culture. The population in Europe doubled in the High Middle Ages (Olea and Christakos 292). Cities grew with people specializing in different trades and others interacted with farmers that supplied food for the city. The citystate constructed a perfect habitat for disease to thrive. There was no sewer or water drainage from the city and the rivers were polluted with waste. People lived in cramped areas next to each other, it was only a matter of time until the amount of people in these living conditions created a disaster. With such a lack of medical information people collaborated with each other not realizing that the population killer was caused by a microscopic bacterium. As the use of trade routes between countries began to increase Italy andShow MoreRelatedThe Black Death And Its Impact On Society1291 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout history many natural events have had a profound effect on mankind, but few of these events have shaped history and culture as profoundly as the Black Death. The Black Death was the name given to the deadly disease that hugely disrupted Europe between 1347 and 1351. The disaster influenced and altered all aspects of European life. This major catastrophe had many later effects, however due to 50 million deaths, people s economic status shifted and these changes left a lasting impact uponRead MoreThe Black Plague Of Middle Ages1257 Words   |  6 Pagesvile disease that enveloped Europe. The Black Plague thrived in the conditions that Europe and its climate harbored along with the filthy living conditions of European cities. The declination of population was immense and altered the way the economy, arts, and religion of M iddle Aged society was structured. Carrying along with these byproducts of such a devastating epidemic are the emergence of influential artists and philosophers of the time. The Black Plague originated in China (Europe’s PlaguesRead MoreEssay on The Black Death1392 Words   |  6 PagesThe Black Death   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is impossible to discuss Europe’s history without mentioning the Plague of 1348, also known as the Black Death. The Black Death reached Italian shores in the spring of 1348. The presence of such a plague was enormously devastating making its mark in unprecedented numbers in recorded history. According to records, it is estimated to have killed a third of Europe’s population. The Black Death was caused by bacteria named Yersinia Pestis. This germ was transferred fromRead MoreEffects Of Colonialism On Native Peoples1072 Words   |  5 Pages The Effects of Colonialism on Native Peoples Colonialism has had major effects on different countries throughout the years. Europeans were a major cause of these horrid events. Colonization will cause a country to lose the culture they have developed and will strip the natives of their souls. As you read through this paper, you will discover the true horror of what colonialism is and how it strips the souls of the people in it. Stripping the Souls of the Natives It is known that invading a countryRead MoreThe Black Death s Effects On Europe1470 Words   |  6 PagesThe Black Death’s Effects on Europe Cole Younger WH2 11-20-15 Rough Draft The disastrous plague called the Black Death had monumental, long lasting effects that would ultimately change the fate of the entire continent of Europe. The mid-1300s in Europe were part of the Dark Ages. Human populations were near over-crowding, and the land was stretched to produce food. Mother Nature created a drastic solution. The world lifted a bleak shadow of death and chaos over the people ofRead More Light and Dark of Colonialism and Imperialism in Heart of Darkness1542 Words   |  7 Pagesaggravated murder on a great scale, and men going at it blind - as it is very proper for those who tackle a darkness. The European colonialists are portrayed as blind lightbearers, people having a faà §ade of progress and culture, yet are blind of their actions. They think they are brining a light to a darkness, yet they are the real darkness or evil. Conrads critique of European colonialism is most apparent through the oppositions of light and darkness, with the contrast of good and evil in charactersRead More Review of The Black Death Essay854 Words   |  4 PagesReview of The Black Death The Black Death discusses the causes and results of the plague that devastated medieval Europe. It focuses on the many effects it had on the culture of medieval Europe and the possibility that it expedited cultural change. I found that Robert S. Gottfried had two main theses in the book. He argued that rodent and insect life cycles, as well as the changing of weather systems affect plague. He claimed that the devastation plague causes is partly due to its perpetualRead MoreThe Black Death s Effects On Europe1454 Words   |  6 Pages The disastrous plague called the Black Death had monumental, long lasting effects that would ultimately change the fate of the entire continent of Europe. The mid-1300s in Europe were part of the Dark Ages. Human populations were near over-crowding, and the land was stretched to produce food. Mother Nature created a drastic solution. The world lifted a bleak shadow of death and chaos over the people of Europe in the form of plague. It originated from fl eas, but rats carried the fleas with this plagueRead MoreThe Black Death And The Middle Ages879 Words   |  4 Pagesbecause many important records from this time was not able to be saved or they were lost. Many events that occurred in this time drastically affect the culture of the citizens of Europe. The Middle Ages affected the European World socially, politically, and religion wise. The lack of morale in the country called for a lot of changes to occur. The Black Death was one of the most drastic events that occurred during the Middle Ages. The disease spread like wild fire and infected the majority of the populationRead MoreThe And Its Effects On The Culture1333 Words   |  6 Pagesbearings that the Igbo culture had to go through in order to have a successful cultural syncamatic society. This includes religion, education, and economical ideas that are compelled on the culture. The idea enhances and expresses that the process of colonialistic movements can have a devastating outcome on the culture that is stripped from the civilization, thus invading influences on the culture such as missionaries or other colonialistic effect on native, indigenous cultures and traditional beliefs

Friday, December 27, 2019

Primark Strategic Marketing Audit - 5274 Words

Primark Strategic Marketing Audit ARTD3039-26820 25613537 Image One Primark Facebook Image Two Primark Facebook ontents 1. Executive Summary 2. Brand Introduction 3. Brand Onion 4-5. The Consumer 6-7. Internal Analysis 8. Promotional Strategy 9. Price Strategy 10. Product Price Hierarchy 11. Product Strategy Appendix 12. Distribution strategy 24. Brand Identity Prism 14. The Competition 15. Brand Positioning Map 16-17. HM 18-19. Financial Analysis 25. Rogers Theory of Innovation 26. Consumer Segmentation Table 27. Ansoff’s Matrix Theory 28. HM SWOT Analysis 29. Like for Like Comparison 20-21. External Analysis 30. PESTLE Analysis 22-23. Objectives 31-32. Bibliography This marketing audit will critically analyse the†¦show more content†¦Consumer A ‘60% of Primark sales revenue comes from outside the UK. Most of Primark customers are from Europe and the Arab Nation, with a marginal amount coming from the B.R.I.C Nation,’ BBC. The predominantly female consumer base craves economical, accessible fashion. They conventionally shop in bulk a few times a month or a few times a week for selective products. (For Roger’s Theory of Adoption see Appendix Two) Three consumer types have been identified within Primark. Consumer B Consumer C †¢16-23 †¢24-35 †¢35+ †¢In current education of college, A-Levels or Undergraduate degree †¢Working professionals and potentially parents †¢Mainly parents and parttime workers †¢Purchase less frequently but more in transaction †¢Mid-low income who want value for money †¢Early adopters of trends †¢Tend to buy in bulk and matching outfits †¢Very digitally savvy with the latest technology †¢Has few financial outgoings- When they have money these consumers are less thoughtful about the price †¢Living in busy towns or cities †¢Large demand for innovation and fast fashion -4- †¢Mid-High income †¢Purchase for practicality and long durability †¢Will shop in many departments within the brand †¢Less conscious about up to date fashionability †¢Early/Late Majority †¢Childrenswear appeals mostly †¢Not conscious about fashionability, more about durability †¢Not digitally aware, but want quick and easy access †¢Late majority/Laggards Consumer A is the prime segment that Primark target.Show MoreRelatedPrimark Case Study4613 Words   |  19 PagesFEBRUARY 2009 MBA Semester 1 Technology and Management in the Information Age PRIMARK [pic] LIST OF GROUP MEMBERS |Surname |First Name |Student ID Number | | | | | | | | Read MoreManual Of HND Marketing Planning Fina14769 Words   |  60 PagesHND Business- Unit Manual- Unit 14- Working with and Leading People UNIT MANUAL (STUDY GUIDE) Marketing Planning Unit 19 HND BUSINESS N E NELSON COLLEGE LONDON L S O N C O L L E G E Copy right Author Editor Version Nelson College London Alfred Mbeteh Nazim Uddin V1-August 2013 HND Business- Unit Manual- Unit 14- Working with and Leading People TABLE OF CONTENT Table of content ...........................................................................................................Read MoreExplain the ethical issues a business needs to consider in its operational activities3515 Words   |  15 Pagesbusiness and how its activities affect all of its stakeholders. Ethical behaviour within a particular business is different from an ethical business. An ethical business sets out from the beginning to work ethically and ethics from a part of its strategic aims. What Is Business Ethics? Business ethics is an organisation which works to achieve corporate aims. The aims are dictated by the kind of organisation itself. A public service organisation, for instance, must deliver government servicesRead MoreAssignment : Managing An Organization Essay2068 Words   |  9 PagesManaging in organisation Question no 1, A Three specific management roles according to Hennery Minzberg Role 1 As a manager of Primark I would perform the task mention below. All we know the role of management in organisation. It is a big garment industries and retail store produce textile and clothing.. New Zealand is a new market for Primark and my role is to market Primark in New Zealand. It is the part of ABF so its helps to create market positioning here. Interpersonal category It is the PartRead MoreAnalylis Primark22310 Words   |  90 PagesPRIMARK PRIMARK Pay Less Look Good MBA 4B Shahid Ishaq Nafees Akram Shahid Rashid Rana Waheed Zafar SanaUllah Waqas Nayer Sadia Rafaqat Sana Altaf Aun Naqi Zainab Naeem 152 113 154 194 147 179 138 145 166 199 Submitted to Sir Adil Paracha Contents Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................... i Introduction.........................................................................Read MoreCeecee Case Study Analysis9518 Words   |  39 PagesCeeCee Case Study Analysis School of Business Humanities Institute of Technology Blanchardstown Dublin 15 Bachelor of Business Studies Strategic Marketing Management 04/03/2011 1. INTIAL OBSERVATIONS * Fashion Industry * The fashion retail industry has grown rapidly. It is reported in the case study that sales revenue in the European clothing market has increased by almost 20% over the last decade. * There has been substantial price deflation caused by the increasing marketRead MoreMarketing Planning Process of HM4115 Words   |  17 Pagesthroughout the process of this assignment. Their contribution has been truly appreciated. Introduction In order to understand the Marketing Planning Process it is important to first know what the term, Marketing Planning Process means. Market planning is â€Å"the process by which businesses analyse the environment and their capabilities, decide upon courses of marketing action and implement those decisions. (Jobber, 2006) It is also important to acknowledge the different stages and types of the processRead MoreAnalysis of the Overall Business Environment of MS2023 Words   |  9 Pagescurrent issues facing by MS as a specialist strategic marketing consultant. It explores the relationship between stakeholders and perception of customer attitude toward the organisation. In addition, it finds out the competitive position with rivals, sustainability strategy, marketing tactics, and management structure of communication system, which is presented through strategic audit. However, this analysis helps to understand the clear marketing strategic position of MS. The research is gatheringR ead MoreCorporate Environmental and Social Management7337 Words   |  30 Pages................... 6 1. 2. 3. Stakeholders and how they impact on business policies ........................................... 6 Is adopting CSR policies cost-saving? .......................................................................... 7 Primark Ethical Trading ............................................................................................... 7 III. Balance between expectations of stakeholders and the social and environmental issues 9 1. Would you pay extra for ethical productsRead MoreMarks Spencer1929 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿bstract: This report critically analyses how the external and internal factors affect the strategies of MS and modifies its business strategies. Even though MS has good strategy and marketing plans they haven’t used it to their advantage. It also tells how the macro and micro environment affect their strategy and their plan. The report uses frame works like PESTEL, SWOT and porter 5 forces. It further investigates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of MS. This report highlights

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Evolution of Second- and Foreign- Language Teaching

The Evolution of Second- and Foreign- Language Teaching (The 19th and 20th Century and The New Era of Second Language Teaching) In his treatment of the historical developments in language pedagogy, Stern (1992) isolates three ways in which language pedagogy has aimed to renew and improve itself:1. Innovation through change in teaching methods; 2. Innovation through language-related sciences and research; 3. Technological innovation. During the nineteenth century, the Grammar-Translation Method with its emphasis on the transmission of structural rules and analysis of form served as the principal method of teaching modern and classical languages in schools. The goal of studying a foreign language was to learn the language so as†¦show more content†¦Under this paradigm, students become active discovers and constructors of their own knowledge. Knowledge construction, communities of learners, individual and collective discovery and problem solving: these will be important qualifiers for education in the 21 st century. This new paradigm for education contrasts boldly with the traditional paradigm. The following table contrasts the two paradigms or the conventional and reform approaches to education: Conventional Instruction Reform Instruction - Teacher-directed Student exploration - Didactic teaching Interactive modes of instruction - Short blocks of instruction on Extended blocks of authentic and multi- a single subject disciplinary work - Individual work Collaborative work - Teacher as knowledge dispenser Teacher as facilitator - Ability groupings Heterogeneous groupings -Show MoreRelatedA Review of K W Lees Article Energizing the ESL/EFL Classroom through Internet Activities1140 Words   |  5 Pagesimportant source of information for English language and not only. Singhal, M. (1997). The Internet and foreign language education: Benefits and challenges. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. III, No. 6, June. Retrieved The article provides an overview of the Internet, with benefits and disadvantages for its use as a resource in teaching second language classrooms. The focus is on the Internet as a teaching tool and an environment for experiencingRead MoreTeaching And Learning Of A Second Language1267 Words   |  6 Pages For many years, the teaching and learning of a second language has been the norm in schools throughout Europe and the United States. Teachers approached language instruction in a variety of ways like the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) method, where students are taught fluency through conversation, or the Lexical Approach in which learners are able to understand and speak in large quantities of specific vocabulary and idioms (Richards and Rodgers 83-229). However, as the world progressed technologicallyRead Moreforeign language instruction should beg1476 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Topic: Foreign Language Instruction Should Begin in Kindergarten, Discuss. Submitted to: - Rob Horlin Submitted by: - Ranjit Singh Student ID - 13903 Class- EAP 2A Date -29-08-2014 Foreign language instruction should begin in kindergarten, discuss. Foreign language is a language native to other nation. Learning a foreign language is becoming essential nowadays and it can change the way of life. To communicate and trade with people from different nations there is a greatRead MoreThe Effects Of Age Related On The Motivation Of Learning Efl Essay1559 Words   |  7 Pagesinvestigation on the language learning motivation has long been the active field among the linguistics. This essay is a review study of a research made by Judit Kormos and Kata Csizer who aimed to test the theory of Dà ¶rnyei, namely L2 motivational self system (Dà ¶rnyei, The L2 motivational self system, 2009) by focusing on the learners’ motivation in studying English as a foreign language in three different groups of people in Hungary: secondary school students, university students and adult language learnersRead More The Audio-Lingual Method for Teaching Languages1398 Words   |  6 PagesThe subject of this essay will be the audio-lingual method wh ich is a teaching method that was first used in the 1950s until the 1970s, although it could be safely stated that the method is regularly used in modern day language teaching. This essay will describe the functionality and history of the audio-lingual method as well as evaluate its usage compared to other mainstream teaching approaches. However before the method is analysed in itself, two factors must be recognised in order to understandRead MoreMy Experience At Uztea And British Council s Project1425 Words   |  6 Pagesthanks to my previous work experience at UzTEA and British Council’s project I managed to rule out many situations with positive outcomes. Furthermore, the language center was small and I was in an excellent time period where I had to work with the language center owner and the director shoulder to shoulder and built the future of the language center almost from the scratch. Under their guidance I lived through many difficult days and learned how to cope with emotional and physical fatigue while atRead MoreThe Impact Of Hearing English For High School Students The Skills Of Radio Programs1747 Words   |  7 Pages This study aims to identify the impact on the evolution of hearing English for high school students the skills of radio programs. This research helps develop listening and ways of developing them in person and listen to the correct pronunciation of the word from a real person by listening to radio programs in skills. Listening is a focus on basic language skills, And to develop good listening skills in order to cope with the academic requirements of the school and learn adequate readingRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Society1625 Words   |  7 Pagesonly be expected that its effects are just as great. One of the key areas social media affects in these people is language. Therefore, messaging in social media and other forms of digital communication are expanding American young adults’ vocabulary, their attitude towards language, and the forms in which they communicate. As a result of social media’s effect on the evolution of language, Americans’ vocabulary has enlarged to incorporate new words and develop different connotations. In the world ofRead MoreModern Life : Is It All At The Mercy Of Chance?809 Words   |  4 Pagesbe great avenues toward accomplishing such worthy and noble goals. A second selection of essays included here surrounds modern education. Since I worked as a mathematics instructor for 33 years at both secondary and post-secondary levels in the U. S., my experience drove me to express some of the stringent concerns I have about education in this changing world. From academic issues in the classroom and learning foreign languages, to learning by traveling, as well as the funding of education, thereRead MoreThe Effects Of Globalization On Multilingualism And I Propose Doing Multiple Case Studies1524 Words   |  7 Pages Language is oftentimes perceived as intrinsic to human nature which while true to an extent, ignores the way human behaviour today has affected our communication with one another. Since the end of the twentieth century, globalization changed the way people in the globalized countries are understood through language in ways that have both strengths and weaknesses. Languages have switched from being simply indicators of cultural backg round to being a commodity in the economic sphere. This reworking